Journal of Best Practices in Health Professions Diversity: Research, Education and Policy

Edited by Dr. Peggy Valentine, Winston-Salem State University

Frequency: Spring and Fall

Latest Issue: Volume 9, Number 2, Fall 2016

Size: 7.25 x 9.5

Bibliographic Information: ISSN: 2475-2843


The Journal of Best Practices in Health Professions Diversity is a publication from the School of Health Sciences at Winston-Salem State University. Its mission is to provide a forum for the discussion of factors that promote or constrain the development and sustainability of a diverse health professions workforce. The journal is directed toward educators, policy makers and the health community. It is a bi-annual published source of information on maximizing recruitment and retention of culturally diverse health professions and students in the healthcare professional areas. For more information visit the School of Health Sciences at Winston-Salem State University’s web page for the journal.

logos for Winston-Salem State University and the National Association of Medical Minority Educators, Inc.Dr. Peggy Valentine is Dean and Professor of the School of Health Sciences at Winston-Salem State University.

The journal is sponsored by the National Association of Medical Minority Educators and the North Carolina Alliance for Health Professions Diversity.

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Individual price – $79.00 (order online)
Institutional price – $99.00
Student price – $35.00

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Peggy Valentine, EdD, FASAHP,  Winston-Salem State University

Acting Managing Editor & Art/Layout Editor

Elijah Onsomu, MPH, PhD, CHES, Winston-Salem State University

Associate Editor

JoAnne Banks, PhD, RN, Winston-Salem State University

Assistant to the Acting Managing Editor

Lakisha Crews, MS

Copy Editor

Julie Edelson, PhD, Wake Forest University

Editorial Board

Leslie Allison, PT, PhD, Winston-Salem State University
Stephen Aragon, PhD, Winston-Salem State University
JoAnne Banks, PhD, RN, Winston-Salem State University
Elizabeth Brown, PhD, Tennessee State University
Lenora Campbell, PhD, RN, North Carolina A&T State University
Vera Campbell, PhD, Hampton University
Lee Caplan, PhD, Morehouse School of Medicine
Cheryl Davis, DHA, Tuskegee University
Vanessa Duren-Robinson, PhD, MS, Winston-Salem State University
Christopher Edwards, PhD, BCIAC, IABMCP, Duke University Medical Center
Cynthia Hughes Harris, PhD, Florida A&M University
Denisha L. Hendricks, PhD, Kentucky State University
Owen Johnson, DrPH, Tennessee State University
Francis Abuga Ndemo, PhD, Hampton University
Elijah Onsomu, PhD, MPH, MS, MCHES, Winston-Salem State University
Shelly Powers, PA-C, MC, Howard University
Joan Reede, MD, Harvard University
Peggy Valentine, EdD, FASAHP, Winston-Salem State University
Ellen Yancey, PhD, Morehouse School of Medicine
Bernadette Williams York, PT, DSC, GCS, Alabama State University


Cedric Bright, MD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Lester Brigman, DNP
Doris Boutain, PhD, RN, University of Washington
Vivian Carter, PhD, MHR, Tuskegee University
Robin Dock, PhD, LPC, LPC-S, ACS, CRC, Winston-Salem State University
Deana Evans, PhD, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
John L. Garland, PhD, BCC, GCDF, Alabama State University
Susan Hall, RNC, MSN, Winston-Salem State University
Mark Hand, PhD, RN, Durham Technical Community College
Jennifer Johnson, DNP, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Jennifer Jones-Locklear, University of North Carolina at Pembroke
Kimya Nance, PhD, RN, Winston-Salem State University
TaKasha Railey, RN, MSN, CCRN, Winston-Salem State University

Table of Contents

Fall 2016: Volume 9, Number 2

Editor’s Foreword

Reaching Higher
Peggy Valentine, EdD, FASAHP

NAMME President Foreword

Pressing Forward
Anika Daniels, EdD, MA


A Special Master’s Program as a Pipeline to Increase Diversity at an Osteopathic Medical College
Christina A. Goode, PhD
Colleen Talbot, PhD
ABSTRACT: The value of diversity and increasing cultural competence among future healthcare practitioners is well documented and cannot be overstated, especially as it relates to reducing the prevalence of healthcare disparities. One method proven to increase diversity in medical schools is the pipeline program for students from backgrounds underrepresented in medicine. This article discusses the best practices used in a mission-based Master’s program designed to help individuals from diverse backgrounds gain acceptance to professional schools. The program’s success is demonstrated by significant increase in underrepresented minority enrollment at the College of Osteopathic Medicine and early evidence that program graduates are prepared for success in the professional school.

Trends in Mirroring Populations Served: An Opportunity for Progress in the Nursing and Dental Hygiene Professions
Anna Matthews, RDH, MS
Aida L. Egues, DNP, RN, APHN-BC, CNE
ABSTRACT: Eliminating health disparities includes increasing practitioners who more closely mirror the diversity of populations served. Institutional trends over a ten-year academic period (2005-2014) at a public, urban college were examined with respect to the racial/ethnic composition of Dental Hygiene and Nursing associate degree program graduates and compared to national professional and 2010 New York City and United States census findings. Overall, racial and ethnic minority groups at the institution examined were better represented when compared to national professional statistics, but the racial/ethnic composition of graduates was not representative of the local New York City population. Academic institutions should increase recruitment and retention of students of disparate ethnic/racial backgrounds to Dental Hygiene and Nursing programs to better reflect the populations served.

Stereotype Threat Susceptibility Among Minority Health Professions Students
Kupiri Ackerman-Barger, PhD, RN
Claire Valerama-Wallace, MS, MPH, RN, PHN
Darin Latimore, MD
Christina Drake, MD
ABSTRACT: This mixed methods study examines stereotype threat susceptibility among underrepresented minority nursing and medical students at a large public academic medical center. It aimed to reveal: 1) the degree to which these students experience stereotype threat; 2) the kinds of negative stereotypes they perceive and must navigate; and 3) the negative affect they experience in academic health professions settings. Results will help educators to support students from underrepresented backgrounds in reaching their full academic potential. Grounded strategies for mitigating or minimizing stereotype threat are discussed.

The Continuing Quest for Parity: HBCU Nursing Students’ Perspectives on Nursing and Nursing Education
Costellia Talley, PhD, MSN, RN, ACNS-BC
Henry Talley, PhD, MSN, MS, CRNA
Janice Collins-McNeil, PhD, MSN, APRN, CPHN, FNP, BC
ABSTRACT: The benefits of a diverse nursing workforce are well-recognized, yet, the attainment of a sustainable, competent and diverse nursing workforce continues to be a global challenge. In this qualitative study, we describe nursing students’ perceptions on nursing and nursing education at a Historically Black College/University (HBCU). Focus groups were conducted with 16 graduate and undergraduate nursing students. Four themes emerged: communication, lack of resources, support systems and professional socialization. Mentoring and civility were identified as factors important to enhance a diverse workforce.

Theoretical/Philosophical Essay

Andragogy: A Fundamental Principle of Online Education for Nursing
Gina DeCelle, MSN, RN
ABSTRACT: Andragogy is a fundamental principle of online education that has greatly affected nursing educators’ perspective on adult education. It is student-centered, experience-based, problem-oriented, and requires collaboration between adult learners and nursing educators. Online education has historically been designed for self-directed adult learners. Along with meeting the demand for life-long learning, online continuous education offers nursing students convenient, easy access to high-quality programs. Nursing faculty are challenged to become proficient in new technologies and to develop online education programs that incorporate effective teaching and learning strategies. A plethora of media, such as wikis and blogs, can be employed to engage adult nursing students. The current advances in media technology have also catalyzed the development and ongoing transformation of online nursing education programs. Constructivism, which includes andragogy and problem-based learning, has provided the framework for change. Nurses educated through constructivist frameworks are better prepared to transition to practice settings, and the skills learned and honed provide them with the metacognitive ability essential to active and self-directed learning. Well-constructed online educational programs allow adult nursing students to learn how to learn.

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